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National Statistics
Publication, Part of

Personal Social Services: Staff of Social Services Departments, England 2019

National statistics
Publication Date:
Geographic Coverage:
England
Geographical Granularity:
Local Authorities, Councils with Adult Social Services Responsibilities (CASSRs)
Date Range:
01 Oct 2018 to 30 Sep 2019

Individual worker characteristics

This section contains detailed information about local authority adult social services staff in 2019 and is derived from data about individual workers collected by the ASC-WDS. Local authorities are required to complete worker level information on at least 90% of their workforce. This equates to 113,200 workers being used to analyse the characteristics of the individuals that carry out the jobs. The topic areas covered are gender, age, ethnicity, pay, sickness days and qualifications. The ASC-WDS collects other data items including training, experience and nationality but these data items were voluntary for local authorities to complete and have not been included in this publication. These variables are analysed in The state of the adult social care sector and workforce in England report.

Gender

Where gender was known or recorded, the majority (81.7%) of the adult social services jobs in 2019 were carried out by female workers. These proportions have remained unchanged since 2011. Gender was unknown or not recorded for 2,330 staff in 2019. A new category ‘Other’ was introduced to capture those not identifying as male or female. Further details can be found in Table 8 of the reference data.

Gender

Figure 3.1 shows the gender split across each job role group where gender was known / recorded.

Download the data for this chart Figure 3.1: Proportion of adult social services jobs, by gender (where known) and job role group, 2019

Source: Skills for Care - ASC-WDS - See Table 8 in Reference Data Tables

The proportion of male workers was generally highest in managerial and other job roles (22.2% and 23.2% respectively) and lowest in direct care providing job roles (15.3%).

Age

Image for infographic The average age of workers in adult social care departments within local authorities was 47.5
The average age of workers in adult social care departments within local authorities was 47.5

This has remained the case since 2011, and is slightly older than the average in the independent sector of 43.2

In 2019, nearly three quarters of the jobs in adult social care in local authorities (73.7%) were filled by workers aged 40 or over and just under a third (32.0%) by workers aged 55 or over. Furthermore, very few jobs (2.9%) were filled by workers aged 24 and below.

The mean age of workers in local authority adult social services jobs has remained at 47 years old since 2011. Local authority adult social services workers are older, on average, than their independent sector counterparts where the average was 43.2 (Skills for Care, 2019). This is also higher than the average age of the NHS workforce, which is also 42.9. Figure 3.2 shows the age distribution of all workers in adult social services jobs at September 2019.

Download the data for this chart Figure 3.2: Proportion of adult social services jobs, by worker age band, 2019

Proportions do not include records for which no age was recorded.

Source: Skills for Care - ASC-WDS - See Table 11 in Reference Data Tables

 

The average age differed slightly by job role group, with workers in direct care jobs having the oldest average age of 48.4, closely followed by workers in managerial jobs (48.3 years old). Workers in professional roles were youngest on average (44.7 years old).

When compared to the age bands of the labour market population of people in work, as seen in Figure 3.3, workers in local authority adult social services jobs are much older than those from the labour market population. Nearly half (49.1%) of the local authority workers are aged 50 and over compared to just 32.2% of the labour market. From a workforce planning point of view, workers aged 50 and over could retire within the next ten to fifteen years.

At the younger end of the age bands (18-24 and 25-34) the local authority workforce has lower proportions (2.9% and 13.5% respectively) than the wider labour market population showing that younger people are not taking up adult social care jobs within the local authority.

Download the data for this chart Figure 3.3: Comparison of workers in local authority adult social services jobs against labour market, by age bands

Source: Skills for Care - ASC-WDS - See Table 11 in Reference Data and ONS labour market population figures - Jul-Sep 2019

Ethnicity

Where ethnicity was known / recorded, the majority (84.5%) of the adult social services jobs within local authorities in 2019 were carried out by White workers, with 15.5% carried out by workers from Black Asian and Minority Ethnic (BAME) groups. There were 18,100 workers who did not have their ethnicity recorded or their ethnicity was not known.

Download the data for this chart Figure 3.4: Proportion of adult social services jobs by ethnicity (where known), 2019

2019 based on 151 councils with ethnicity data recorded.

Source: Skills for Care - ASC-WDS - See Table 13 in Reference Data Tables

 

When looking at ethnicity of local authority social services workers by job role group, the professional group had the highest amount of BAME workers with 22.8%. The proportion of BAME workers further increased to 25.0% for Social Worker roles which form part of the professional job role group. In comparison, the manager and supervisor job role group had the least amount of BAME workers (11.2%).

Download the data for this chart Figure 3.5: Proportion of adult social services jobs, by ethnicity group of worker and job role group, 2019

2019 based on 151 councils with ethnicity data recorded.

Source: Skills for Care - ASC-WDS - See Table 13 in Reference Data Tables

 

The proportion of BAME workers in the local authority workforce varied between region, accounting for 51.9% of total workers in London, and just 2.6% of the total workforce in the North East (where ethnicity was known / recorded). In London 34.1% of all ethnicity data were not recorded or not known, and 6.7% of all ethnicity data in North East were not recorded or not known.

In the London region, 40.2% of all the whole population are classified within the BAME ethnic group, whilst more than half (51.9%) of local authority employees in London (adult social care) are within the BAME group.

Generally, the proportion of BAME workers of the wider population within regions is lower than the BAME proportion of those employed within the adult social care workforce of local authorities.

Download the data for this chart Figure 3.6: BAME proportion of local authority adult social care workforce population versus wider general population, by region, 2019

Source: Skills for Care - ASC-WDS - See Table 14 in Reference Data Tables. Population data provided by Nomis (2011 census estimates – Table KS201EW - Ethnic group, https://www.nomisweb.co.uk/default.asp)

Ethnicity per 100,000 population

To understand the variation in ethnic groups within the adult social care workforce within the context of the ethnic breakdown of the wider population, these figures have been standardised per 100,000 of the general population.

Although the local authority workforce is predominately White at 84.5%, there are some individual BAME ethnicity groups which have a larger rate per 100,000 population than the White ethnic group. In particular, Black / African / Caribbean / Black British is higher in each of the main job role groups.

Download the data for this chart Figure 3.7 Ethnicity of local authority adult social services workers per 100,000 population, by job role group, 2019

Source: Skills for Care - ASC-WDS - See Table 15 in Reference Data Tables. Population Per 100,000 data provided by Nomis (2011 census estimates – Table KS201EW - Ethnic group, https://www.nomisweb.co.uk/default.asp)

Pay

The data in this section shows median whole time equivalent (WTE) annual salaries for adult social services jobs. Annual salary data were converted into WTE salaries using 37 hours as the average full-time hours per week per worker. Hourly rate data was also converted into annual WTE salaries.

The chart in Figure 3.8 shows whole time equivalent pay in September 2019 ordered from the highest paid role to the lowest paid role within each job role group. Senior management roles were the highest paid with a median of £77,700 (up £1,300 or 1.7% since 2018) and ancillary staff were the lowest paid with a median pay of £18,200 (up £1,100 or 6.4% since 2018). Care workers (who represent 30.0% of all jobs) had the second lowest median pay at just over £19,200 (up £500 or 2.7% since 2018).

Download the data for this chart Figure 3.8: Whole time equivalent annual 'median' cash pay of adult social services jobs, by job roles

Only showing job roles which consist of 100 workers or more.

Source: Skills for Care - ASC-WDS - See Table 16 in Reference Data Tables

Pay in relation to inflation

Table 3.9 ‘cash terms’ and Table 3.10 ‘real terms’ show the change in whole time equivalent pay rates between 2012 and 2019 by job role. Cash terms rates refer to the actual average annual salary received for each year.

Cash terms

In cash terms, all the listed job roles below (those with more than 2,000 worker records) received a cash terms increase of 2.0% to 6.4%, between 2018 and 2019. The ‘Ancillary staff not care-providing’ job role which is the lowest paid job role received the highest percentage change (6.4%) in cash terms since last year.

When comparing the changes between 2012 to 2019 all job roles saw a cash terms pay increase. Again, ‘Ancillary staff not care-providing’ had the biggest increase (21.0% or £3,200), whereas Senior care worker roles increased by the least (5.3% or £1,200) between 2012 and 2019.

Table 3.9: Median whole time equivalent annual pay of adult social services jobs in cash terms by year1 and job role2, September 2019

Job role 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019

% change 2018 to 19

% change 2012 to 19

Direct care                    
Senior Care Worker £22,600 £23,500 £23,200 £22,900 £22,400 £22,700 £23,100 £23,800 3.1% 5.3%
Care Worker £17,100 £17,200 £17,500 £17,400 £17,500 £17,800 £18,700 £19,200 2.7% 12.0%
Community Support and Outreach Work £20,900 £21,100 £21,700 £22,200 £22,100 £22,700 £23,100 £23,800 3.1% 14.3%
Manager / Supervisor                    
First Line Manager £34,500 £35,600 £35,700 £36,700 £36,900 £38,200 £39,700 £40,600 2.1% 17.4%
Supervisor £26,200 £26,200 £26,800 £27,100 £27,400 £27,700 £28,200 £19,400 4.1% 12.3%
Managers and staff in care-related but not care-providing roles £29,600 £29,500 £29,600 £28,800 £29,900 £29,300 £29,900 £31,400 4.9%

5.9%

Professional                    
Social Worker £19,100 £20,200 £19,200 £19,700 £20,500 £20,700 £21,100 £22,000 2.3% 9.9%
Occupational Therapist £30,800 £31,200 £32,000 £32,800 £33,100 £33,400 £34,100 £34,800 2.0% 12.8%
Other                    
Administrative or office staff not care-providing £19,100 £20,200 £19,900 £19,700 £20,500 £20,700 £21,100 £22,000 4.5% 15.1%
Ancillary staff not care-providing £15,100 £15,000 £15,600 £15,400 £15,900 £16,300 £17,100 £18,200 6.4% 21.0%
Other non-care-providing job roles               £26,300    

1Timeline data starts from 2012 when data is based on 152 local authorities with whole time equivalent pay data recorded. 2019 is based on 151 local authorities.

2Only job roles with 2,000 or more worker records are shown as median pay trends are more vulnerable to skew as a result of small numbers of workers.

Source: Skills for Care - ASC-WDS - See Table 17 in Reference Data Tables

Real terms

What are real terms?

The ‘real terms’ rates are adjusted for inflation using the Consumer Prices Index (CPI) and are expressed as 2019 prices. Real terms rates are particularly useful because they allow pay rates to reflect changes in the cost of goods and services and therefore provide a better indicator of the ‘value’ of a role’s pay over time, in this example when reflected as 2019 pay rates. For more information on adjusting for inflation please visit http://researchbriefings.files.parliament.uk/documents/SN04962/SN04962.pdf

Real term changes between 2018 and 2019 (in Table 3.10 below) also shows increases in average pay for every job role, when factoring the Consumer Price Index (CPI) inflation rate.

In real terms, between 2012 and 2019 there was more of a mixed picture with five job roles showing a decrease. ‘Senior care worker’ showed the largest decrease, down 6.4%.

Table 3.10: Median whole time equivalent annual pay of adult social services jobs in real terms1 by year2 and job role3, September 2019

Job role 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019

% change 2018 to 19

% change 2012 to 19

Direct care                    
Senior Care Worker £25,500 £25,700 £25,100 £24,800 £24,100 £23,600 £23,500 £23,800 1.3% -6.4%
Care Worker £19,200 £18,800 £18,900 £18,800 £18,800 £18,500 £19,000 £19,200 0.9% -0,4%
Community Support and Outreach Work £23,500 £23,100 £23,500 £24,100 £23,700 £23,600 £23,500 £23,800 1.3% 1.6%
Manager / Supervisor                    
First Line Manager £38,800 £39,000 £38,600 £39,700 £39,600 £39,000 £40,000 £40,600 0.3% 4.5%
Supervisor £29,400 £28,700 £29,000 £29,400 £29,400 £28,800 £28,700 £29,400 2.3% -0.2%
Managers and staff in care-related but not care-providing roles £33,300 £32,300 £32,000 £31,200 £32,000 £30,600 £40,400 £31,400 3.1% -5.8%
Professional                    
Social Worker £35,700 £35,100 £34,700 £35,500 £35,500 £34,900 £34,700 £34,900 0.5% 2.3%
Occupational Therapist £34,700 £34,100 £34,600 £35,500 £35,500 £34,900 £34,700 £34,800 0.2% 0.3%
Other                    
Administrative or office staff not care-providing £21,500 £22,100 £21,600 £21,400 £21,900 £21,500 £21,400 £22,000 2.7% 2.4%
Ancillary staff not care-providing £16,900 £16,500 £16,900 £16,700 £17,100 £17,000 £17,400 £18,200 4.6% 7.6%
Other non-care-providing job roles               £26,300    

1Cash terms pay was converted into 2019 prices (real terms) using CPI inflation.

2Timeline data starts from 2012 when data is based on 152 local authorities with whole time equivalent pay data recorded. 2019 is based on 151 local authorities.

3Only job roles with 2,000 or more worker records are shown as median pay trends are more vulnerable to skew as a result of small numbers of workers.

Source: Skills for Care - ASC-WDS - See Table 18 in Reference Data Tables

Sickness

At September 2019, workers in direct care jobs had the highest number of sickness days with an average of 11.9 days and workers in managerial roles had fewer sickness days on average, at 7.9 days.

The mean number of sickness days in the previous 12 months (as at September 2018 and 2019) for directly employed workers in adult social services jobs is shown in Figure 3.11.

Please note: the methodology for how sickness data is calculated changed in 2018, this is now calculated for directly employed staff only (permanent and temporary workers). Previously the methodology used all workers. Previous years data has been recalculated using this improved methodology.

Download the data for this chart Figure 3.11: Mean number of sickness days in 2018 and 2019, by job role group

Based on 151 local authorities in 2018 and 149 local authorities in 2019 with sickness data recorded.

Source: Skills for Care - ASC-WDS - See Table 19 in Reference Data Tables

 

The mean number of sickness days for 103,600 directly employed adult social care staff in local authorities is 10.2 days. This equates to just over 1 million estimated days lost to sickness every year.

The local authority average sickness days of 10.2 is more than double their independent sector counterparts where the mean number of sickness days is 4.7, which may reflect differing terms and conditions (Skills for Care, 2019). When compared to the UK employment and labour market population sickness average of 4.4 days per worker the gap increases further with local authority workers taking on average just under six more days sickness.

Image for infographic 42.2%
42.2%

of workers in adult social care departments in local authorities had 0 sickness days in the year

Although the mean number of sickness days for workers in adult social services jobs in 2019 was relatively high (10.2 days), Figure 3.12 shows that it is important to note nearly half of workers (42.2%) had no sickness days and two thirds of workers (66.0%) had four or fewer sickness days in the previous 12 months.

7.1% of workers had over 40 sickness days, and particularly high numbers of sickness days can have an impact on the overall mean. Median numbers of sick days per local authority are available in Table 19 in the reference data tables which accompany this publication.

Download the data for this chart Figure 3.12: Distribution of days of sickness (all job roles), 2019

Based on 149 local authorities with sickness data recorded.

Source: Skills for Care - ASC-WDS - See Table 20 in Reference Data Tables

 

Additional data within ASC-WDS

There is a wealth of additional information collected and submitted by local authorities to Skills for Care via ASC-WDS on a mandatory or voluntary basis, which is not directly presented within this publication. Additional data and information not provided as part of this publication, is available via Skills for Care - https://www.skillsforcare.org.uk/Workforceintelligence, this also includes voluntary data submitted from across the whole adult social care sector.

Much of this additional information is voluntary and therefore may not be fully representative when looking at the breath of data available, some of this is aggregated to provide users with an understanding of the general picture within this publication; an example of this could be the impact of the EU referendum on the adult social care sector https://www.skillsforcare.org.uk/adult-social-care-workforce-data/Workforce-intelligence/publications/Topics/Workforce-nationality.aspx

 

Last edited: 26 February 2020 11:34 am