New official figures published today provide experimental statistics on female genital mutilation (FGM) in England, from April 2018 to March 2019.
The Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) Enhanced Dataset collates data collected by healthcare providers1 in England, including acute hospital providers, mental health providers and GP practices on the recording of FGM.
For the first time, this year’s report also includes new time series charts for women and girls by FGM type and a breakdown of Type 4 FGM into pricking, piercing, scraping, incising and cauterisation subtypes.2
There are three main types of count used in FGM Enhanced Dataset publications:
- Newly recorded3 women and girls who have had their FGM information collected in the FGM Enhanced Dataset for the first time. ‘Newly recorded’ does not necessarily mean that the attendance is the woman or girl’s first attendance for FGM or that the FGM has been recently undertaken. It means that the FGM has been recorded by a health professional during the reporting period but could have been carried out at any time in the past.
- Distinct individuals refer to all women and girls seen in the reporting period where FGM was identified. Each person is only counted once.
- Total attendances4 where FGM is identified or a procedure to treat FGM is undertaken. Inclusion in this category does not necessarily mean that the FGM has recently been undertaken.
The FGM Enhanced Dataset cannot measure the total prevalence of FGM in England, only those cases of FGM recorded since the collection began on 1 April 2015.
The data captures information including but not exclusively:
• FGM type5
• Age at attendance
• Country of birth
• Country where FGM was undertaken
• Clinical treatment function where attendance occurred
• Whether deinfibulation6 was undertaken at the attendance.
Read the full report
Notes to editors
- There are 203 NHS trusts, 1,469 GP practices and 12 other organisations registered on the FGM Enhanced Dataset collection system.
- Only 71% of individual women and girls with FGM Type 4 have a subtype recorded. Regionally, the proportion of known values varies between 52% and 89%.
- Newly Recorded women and girls with FGM are those who have had their FGM information collected in the FGM Enhanced Dataset for the first time. This will include those identified as having FGM and those having treatment for their FGM.
- Total Attendances refers to all attendances in the reporting period where FGM was identified or a procedure for FGM was undertaken. Women and girls may have one or more attendances in the reporting period. This category includes both newly recorded and previously identified women and girls.
- The four FGM Types defined by the World Health Organisation (http://www.who.int) are:
- Type 1: Partial or total removal of the clitoris and/or the prepuce (clitoridectomy).
- Type 2: Partial or total removal of the clitoris and the labia minora, with or without excision of the labia majora (excision).
- Type 3: Narrowing of the vaginal orifice with creation of a covering seal by cutting and appositioning the labia minora and/or the labia majora, with or without excision of the clitoris (infibulation).
- Type 4: All other harmful procedures to the female genitalia for non-medical purposes, including pricking, piercing, incising, scraping and cauterization.
The FGM Enhanced Dataset includes two additional categories relating to FGM Type 3 and an Unknown value:
- History of Type 3: Current state where a woman or girl had FGM Type 3, but has since been deinfibulated.
- Type 3 - Reinfibulation Identified: Current state where a woman or girl has been closed previously, opened and is currently closed again.
- Unknown: When the FGM category could not be ascertained. It is acknowledged that even for experienced healthcare workers who frequently see women and girls with FGM it can still often be difficult to determine the type of FGM that had been undertaken.
- Deinfibulation is the surgical procedure to open up the closed vagina of a woman or girl with FGM Type 3. Deinfibulation is often undertaken to facilitate delivery during childbirth.
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